Causes of

dry eye disease

Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease characterized by a loss of homeostasis of the tear film, which usually because of insufficient tear production or instability of tears quality.
tear layers

Structure of tear film

What are the signs and symptoms

of dry eye disease?

The ocular symptoms can be varied among individuals depending on the etiology and severity of dry eye.
Most common signs and symptoms include blurry vision, red eye, burning sensation, foreign body sensation, and watery eye etc.

Corneal epithelial staining due to dry eye disease

Classification Of

dry eye disease:

There are different types of dry eye disease. Common types include evaporative, aqueous deficiency and mixed type dry eye.
1. Evaporative dry eye
This type of dry eye is caused by lack of a normal and stable protective lipid layer over tears causing fast evaporation of blepharitis or Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD).
2. Aqueous deficiency dry eye
This type of dry eye is caused by insufficient secretion of watery component of tears from the lacrimal gland. It is usually related to aging or immune system diseases.
3. Mixed type dry eye
This type of dry eye is associated with various factors resulting in combination of evaporative and aqueous deficiency dry eye.

Meibomian Gland Blockage (MGB)


Who will be more susceptible

to dry eye disease?

  • Aging population
  • Prolonged computer or near work
  • Contact lens wearers
  • Previous refractive or corneal surgery
  • On oral medications (e.g. antidepressants, antihistamines)
  • With immune system diseases (e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

How to assess

dry eye disease?

The assessment includes history taking, assessment of ocular symptoms by validated symptom questionnaire, comprehensive external ocular health examination, and tear assessment.

How to manage

dry eye disease?

With respect to the assessment results, practitioners will recommend appropriate treatment options to the patients, including artificial tears eye drops, warm compress, punctual plug, dietary supplement, lid hygiene, and specially contact lens fitting etc.
Dry eye symptoms SELF-CHECK (OSDI Score) The following 12 questions, circle the number in the box that best represents each answer. Then, fill in boxes A, B, C, D and E according to the instructions.